Hybrid Synergy Drive

Toyota is conducting research and development for cutting-edge technologies in various fields to provide appealing products and services that meet the needs of customers around the world.

Hybrid Synergy Drive® (HSD) is the concept behind the new generation of hybrid vehicles from the Toyota brand, including the Toyota Prius, the world's best-selling hybrid vehicle.

HSD combines driving pleasure and performance with fuel economy, low emissions and silent driving. The word "synergy" extends to the higher synergy between the petrol engine and electric motor to power the vehicle.

The electric motor is now more powerful, allowing a higher ratio of electrical/petrol usage. The results are more performance with greatly improved efficiency.

The benefits of Hybrid Synergy Drive® in the Prius

Excellent driving performance

Acceleration similar to a mainstream D-segment diesel engine

Low fuel consumption

4.3 litres/100 km - equivalent to a B-segment diesel car

Lower emissions

CO2 emissions of 104 g/km in the combined cycle, down from 120 g/km for the previous generation

Silent driving

HSD can run on the electric motor only, offering a completely silent driving experience

Fuel Efficiency

Computer control for a more efficient and powerful engine.

An intelligent computer optimises the engine's oxygen intake by varying the timing of the intake valves. The result is a more responsive car with

  • Engine flexibility that reacts like a larger capacity engine
  • More power at high engine speeds
  • More torque in the lower speed ranges
  • A more efficient engine with enhanced fuel economy and lower emissions.



The ZR engines are known as the "Fuel efficient engines" for better performance and less impact on the environment.

Previously we used to have the E engines(1980s), thenA-FE engines (1990s) and lately the NZ-E engines (2000s). Variable Valve Timing is a technology which lifts and close engine valves as and when required. ZR engines are dual VVT-I with both intake and exhaust valves are controlled electronically.

In this way it ensures optimal performance based on engine operational condition, giving high fuel efficiency and driving performance. As a rule, controlling the exhaust gases and intake air allows better Torque, which translates to the engine power going to the wheels. Two pictures below shows the difference in the mechanism. 


Excellent fuel economy from a regular diesel engine.

The secret of the Toyota D-4D's outstanding performance is an electronic control unit that accurately balances fuel injection pressure, timing and volume according to the demands being made on the engine. As a result, the engine always

  • Works at maximum efficiency
  • Delivers the optimum in power and torque
  • Provides excellent fuel economy

The hilux range is powered by either toyota's 16 - valve 2.5-litre D-4D direct injection common rail turbo-diesel engine, delivering 102bhp & 300Nm/2,000 or the 16-valve 3.0-litre D-4D direct injection common rail turbo-diesel engine,delivering 163bhp & 343Nm/1,400-3,400.

The 3.0 litre D-4D Common Rail Turbo Diesel 1KD-FTV- already among the most powerful and torquey in the sector - is carried over the legendary Land Cruiser and offers enourmous torque with excellent fuel consumption.

The engine develops 120kW (163D|N hp)at 3,400rpm with torque of 343Nm across an engine speed range of 1,600 to 3,200rpm. Maximum speed is 106mph (170km/h) with manual transmission and acceleration from 0-62mph is under 12.7 seconds.

D-4D actually stands for direct Injection 4 Cylinder Common Rail Diesel Engine. Common rail diesels inject a fine mist of fuel into the engine at very high pressure. The result is the same power and refinement as a petrol engine, but with better fuel efficiency and lower emissions. One feature of the electronic controls associated with the common rail is that there is no need to wait for glow plugs to warm up before starting the engine. You just turn the key and it fires up immediately.

Toyota D-4D engines are not just noteworthy for their smooth, linear torque, though: that's a characteristic of most modern diesel engines. What D-4Ds are noteworthy for is their unusually high power outputs, equivalent to that of many competitors' similarly-sized petrol engines. The D-4D's rev range is also usefully wider than normal, further enhancing the driving experience.

This modern technology makes use of a high-pressure pump, a common rail, and computer-controlled injectors to deliver exactly the right amount of fuel to each cylinder, at precisely the right timing. It is this exact timing and fuel measurement that leads to better combustion, cleaner burning and lower emissions of harmful substances such as soot (meeting European Step III exhaust gas regulations). And it is common rail injection that ensures D-4D engines deliver the optimum in power and torque throughout the range of rpm, for better driving performance and comfort.

Fuel in the D-4D is pressurised to an extremely high 135mpa within the "common rail" that feeds all four cylinders (older diesel engines have a separate pipe leading from the pump to each cylinder). The high pressure injection creates better fuel atomisation for complete burning and increased power output. And because there is less fuel wasted though inefficient combustion, the D-4D delivers better fuel economy too.

In addition the computer control unit injects a small amount of fuel into the cylinder just before the main fuel load ignites. This "pilot burn" lowers the explosive force of the main combustion process and goes a long way to reduce the noise and vibration formerly associated with diesel engines. This all goes to make it one of the silkiest diesels ever built.


Derived from world leading safety technologies, all Toyota vehicles provide dependable safety.

Automotive safety is one of the factors that must be given top priority in car making. To this end, Toyota is working on R&D activities to produce vehicles that will perform at the highest level of safety and ensure comfortable driving under various conditions.

As Toyota vehicles are delivered to customers around the world, safety technologies must be developed from a global perspective.

Based not only on the vehicle safety standards around the globe but setting our own exceedingly high targets, Toyota is working hard to develop world leading safety technologies.

Toyota's concept of a safe car is one that must achieve both high level passive and active safety. Passive safety is the concept of helping to protect occupants in the event of a collision while active safety is the concept of helping to prevent accidents from occurring.